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Questions to Ask During an Interview

When I walk out of an interview, I want to know the position’s responsibilities, I want to know the environment and I want to know what I am expected to accomplish during my first week. Most of all I want to know if the company is a fit for me. More often than not companies will hire the best among the candidate pool. This does not mean they are the best for the position. Simply they are the best in the given candidate pool. Very few companies recognize this difference. It’s your job as the interviewee to vet the company.

I have developed the following questions to ask during an interview:

What will be my first task?
Is there a project plan? How much thought has gone into this position?

**What will determine success or failure? **
If project success can’t be articulated, how can they measure success in the position?

**How do I get my tasks? **
Is an issue tracking system used?

Do you use source control?
A company without source control in 2014 is almost always a deal breaker. If a company can’t provide the most basic need of software engineers there are bound to be other issues.

Do you allow remote work?
Telecommuting is a nice perk. It affords you flexibility to do errands or have appointments during lunch.

**Describe the computer/environment I am provide. **
What type of machine is given to software engineers? Two monitors or one? Is the work area low traffic and quiet — Getting stuck in a loud high traffic area sucks.

What are the hours?
Are the hours flexible? What are the core hours?

Am I on call?
Are you expected to support production issues during off hours? Do software engineers answer customer support calls?

Automated builds and Deployments?
How evolved is the build process? Do developers manually build or is it automated?

Do you have testers?
Am I responsible for testing?

**What technologies do you use? **
There are some technologies that are no longer interesting.
SCRUM, Lean, Agile or Waterfall. Does the team do Code Reviews? What about Unit Testing?

Most forget that an interview is a two way street. You, as the interviewee, are interviewing the company and your future co-workers for a good fit in the company and in the position.

Implementing Transparent Encryption with NHibernate Listeners (Interceptors)

Have you ever had to encrypt data in the database? In this post, I’ll explore how using nHibernate Listeners to encrypt and decrypt data coming from and going into your database. The cryptography will be transparent to your application.

Why would you want to do this? SQL Server has encryption baked into the product. That is true, but if you are moving to the cloud and want to use SQL Azure you’ll need some sort of cryptography strategy. SQL Azure does not support database encryption.

What is an nHibernate Listener? I think of a Listener as a piece of code that I can inject into specific extensibility points in the nHibernate persistence and data hydration lifecycle.

As of this writing the following extensibility points are available in nHibernate.

  • IAutoFlushEventListener
  • IDeleteEventListener
  • IDirtyCheckEventListener
  • IEvictEventListener
  • IFlushEntityEventListener
  • IFlushEventListener
  • IInitializeCollectionEventListener
  • ILoadEventListener
  • ILockEventListener
  • IMergeEventListener
  • IPersistEventListener
  • IPostCollectionRecreateEventListener
  • IPostCollectionRemoveEventListener
  • IPostCollectionUpdateEventListener
  • IPostDeleteEventListener
  • IPostInsertEventListener
  • IPostLoadEventListener
  • IPostUpdateEventListener
  • IPreCollectionRecreateEventListener
  • IPreCollectionRemoveEventListener
  • IPreCollectionUpdateEventListener
  • IPreDeleteEventListener
  • IPreInsertEventListener
  • IPreLoadEventListener
  • IPreUpdateEventListener
  • IRefreshEventListener
  • IReplicateEventListener
  • ISaveOrUpdateEventListener

The list is extensive.

To implement transparent cryptography, we need to find the right place to encrypt and decrypt the data. For encrypting the data we’ll use IPostInsertEventListener and IPostUpdateEventListener. With these events we’ll catch the new data and the updated data going into the database. For decrypting, we’ll use the IPreLoadEventListener.

For this demonstration we’ll be using DatabaseCryptography class for encrypting and decrypting. The cryptography implementation is not important for this article.


public class PreLoadEventListener : IPreLoadEventListener
readonly DatabaseCryptography _crypto = new DatabaseCryptography();

/// Called when [pre load].

///The event. public void OnPreLoad(PreLoadEvent @event)
_crypto.DecryptProperty(@event.Entity, @event.Persister.PropertyNames, @event.State);


public class PreInsertEventListener : IPreInsertEventListener
readonly DatabaseCryptography _crypto = new DatabaseCryptography();

/// Return true if the operation should be vetoed

///The event. /// true if XXXX, false otherwise.
public bool OnPreInsert(PreInsertEvent @event)
_crypto.EncryptProperties(@event.Entity, @event.State, @event.Persister.PropertyNames);

return false;


public class PreUpdateEventListener : IPreUpdateEventListener
readonly DatabaseCryptography _crypto = new DatabaseCryptography();

/// Return true if the operation should be vetoed

///The event. /// true if XXXX, false otherwise.
public bool OnPreUpdate(PreUpdateEvent @event)
_crypto.EncryptProperties(@event.Entity, @event.State, @event.Persister.PropertyNames);

return false;

It’s important to note that on both IPreUpdateEventListener and IPreInsertEventListener must return false, otherwise the insert/update event will be aborted.

Now that we have the Listeners implemented we need to register them with nHibernate. I am using FluentNHibernate so this will be different if you are using raw nHibernate.


public class SessionFactory
/// Creates the session factory.

/// ISessionFactory.
public static ISessionFactory CreateSessionFactory()
return Fluently.Configure()

.ConnectionString(c => c

.Mappings(m => m.FluentMappings.AddFromAssemblyOf())
.ExposeConfiguration(s =>
s.SetListener(ListenerType.PreUpdate, new PreUpdateEventListener());
s.SetListener(ListenerType.PreInsert, new PreInsertEventListener());
s.SetListener(ListenerType.PreLoad, new PreLoadEventListener());

When decrypting and encrypting data at the application level it makes the data useless in the database. You’ll need to bring the data back into the application to read the values of the encrypted fields. We want to limit the fields that are encrypted and we only want to encrypt string values. Encrypting anything other that string values complicates things. There is nothing saying we can’t encrypt dates, but doing so will require the date field in the database to become a string(nvarchar or varchar) field, to hold the encrypted data, once we do this we lose the ability to operate on the date field from the database.

To identify which fields we want encrypted and decrypted I’ll use marker attributes.

Encrypt Attribute

public class EncryptAttribute : Attribute

Decrypted Attribute

public class DecryptAttribute : Attribute

To see the EncryptAttribute and the DecryptedAttribute in action we’ll take a peek into the DatabaseCryptography class.


public class DatabaseCryptography
    private readonly Crypto _crypto = ObjectFactory.GetInstance();

    /// Encrypts the properties.
    ///The entity. ///The state. ///The property names. 
    public void EncryptProperties(object entity, object[] state, string[] propertyNames)
        Crypt(entity, propertyNames, s = >

    /// Crypts the specified entity.

    ///The entity. ///The state. ///The property names. ///The crypt.
    private void Crypt(object entity, string[] propertyNames, Func<string, string> crypt, object[] state) where T : Attribute
        if (entity != null)
            var properties = entity.GetType().GetProperties();

            foreach (var info in properties)
                var attributes = info.GetCustomAttributes(typeof (T), true);

                if (attributes.Any())
                    var name = info.Name;
                    var count = 0;

                    foreach (var s in propertyNames)
                        if (string.Equals(s, name, StringComparison.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase))
                            var val = Convert.ToString(state[count]);
                            if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(val))

                                val = crypt(val);
                                state[count] = val;



    /// Decrypts the property.
    ///The entity. ///The state. ///The property names. 
    public void DecryptProperies(object entity, string[] propertyNames, object[] state)
        Crypt(entity, propertyNames, s = >


That’s it. Now the encryption and decryption of data will be transparent to the application and you can go on your merry way building the next Facebook.

Missing Management Delegation Icon in IIS

It’s critical this is done first. Web deploy may not install correctly if it’s installed with the Management Service icon missing. Check IIS for the Management Delegation icon, it’ll be under the Management section.

If it’s missing run the following commands.

Windows 2012

dism /online /enable-feature /featurename:IIS-WebServerRole
dism /online /enable-feature /featurename:IIS-WebServerManagementTools
dism /online /enable-feature /featurename:IIS-ManagementService
Reg Add HKLM\Software\Microsoft\WebManagement\Server /V EnableRemoteManagement /T REG_DWORD /D 1
net start wmsvc
sc config wmsvc start= auto

Run Web Deploy.

Check to see if the icon is there. If it’s not, run web deploy again. It should be there.

Calling Stored Procedures with Code First

One of the weaknesses of Entity Framework 6 Code First is the lack of support for natively calling database constructs (views, stored procedures… etc). For those who have not heard of or used Code-First in Entity Framework (EF), Code-First is simply a Fluent mapping API. The idea is to create all your database mappings in code (i.e. C#) and the framework then creates and track the changes in the database schema.

In traditional Entity Framework to call a stored procedure you’d map it in your EDMX file. This is a multi-step process. Once the process is completed a method is created, which hangs off the DataContext.

I sought to making a calling stored procedure easier. At the heart of a stored procedure you have a procedure name, N number of parameters and a results set. I’ve written a small extension method that takes a procedure name, parameters and a return type. It just works. No mapping the procedure and it’s parameters.

public static List<TReturn> CallStoredProcedure<TParameters, TReturn>(this DataContext context, string storedProcedure, TParameters parameters) where TParameters : class where TReturn : class, new()
IDictionary<string,object> procedureParameters = new Dictionary<string, object>();
PropertyInfo[] properties = parameters.GetType().GetProperties();

var ps = new List<object>();

foreach (var property in properties)
object value = property.GetValue(parameters);
string name = property.Name;

procedureParameters.Add(name, value);

ps.Add(new SqlParameter(name, value));

var keys = procedureParameters.Select(p => string.Format("@{0}", p.Key)).ToList();
var parms = string.Join(", ", keys.ToArray());

return context.Database.SqlQuery<TReturn>(storedProcedure + " " + parms, ps.ToArray()).ToList();


var context = new DataContext();

List<User> users = context.CallStoredProcedure<object,User>("User_GetUserById", new{userId = 3});

Git Cheat Sheet

Below are git commands I find myself using over and over.

clone repository

git clone

Add existing git files to remote git repo

cd /path/to/my/repo
git remote add origin
git push -u origin --all # pushes up the repo and its refs for the first time
git push -u origin --tags # pushes up any tags

Create a repository in existing folder

git init
git add .
# Adds the files in the local repository and stages them for commit
git commit -m "Initial commit"

Change current branch to master

git checkout better_branch
git merge --strategy=ours master # keep the content of this branch, but record a merge
git checkout master
git merge better_branch

Delete Branch

git branch -D bugfix

Revert to previous commit

git checkout master
git reset --hard e3f1e37
git push --force origin master
# Then to prove it (it won't print any diff)
git diff master..origin/master

adds the file to git.

git add [filename]

kills off the untracked files since the more recent commit in the log.

git clean -fd

commits the added files to git.

git commit -m "enter message here"

Remove the file git. Use -f to force the file to removed even when there are changes.

git rm file1.txt

Tagging a specific point in time.

git tag -a v1.4 -m 'my version 1.4'
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